Microwave Sub-Group of GSICS Research Working Group

Information relevant to describing methods for sensor calibration and intercalibration

GSICS Deliverables, Best Practices, etc.

Microwave Imagers

Baseline Information on Sensors (Past and Present)

Monitoring Pages


  • Double Differencing
  • Simultaneous Conical Overpass (SCO)
  • Vicarious calibration

Key Scientific Papers

  1. Alsweiss, S. O., Z. Jelenak, P. S. Chang, J. D. Park, and P. Meyers, 2015: Inter-calibration results of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 over ocean, IEEE J. Appl. Earth Obser. Remote Sens., 8(9), pp. 4230-4238.

  2. Berg, W., S. Bilanow, R. Chen, S. Datta, D. Draper, H. Ebrahimi, S. Farrar, W.L. Jones, R. Kroodsma, D. McKague, and V. Payne, 2016: Intercalibration of the GPM Microwave Radiometer Constellation, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 33(12), pp.2639-2654.

  3. Berg, W., R. Kroodsma, C. D. Kummerow, and D. S. McKague, "Fundamental climate data records of microwave brightness temperatures," Remote Sens., 10(8), pp. 1306, 2018, doi:10.3390/rs10081306.

  4. Biswas, S. K., S. Farrar, K. Gopalan, A. Santos-Garcia, W. L. Jones, and S. Bilanow, 2013: Intercalibration of microwave radiometer brightness temperatures for the Global Precipitation Measurement mission, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , 51(3), pp. 1465-1477.

  5. Carminati, F., Migliorini, S., Ingleby, B., Bell, W., Lawrence, H., Newman, S., Hocking, J., and Smith, A.: Using reference radiosondes to characterise NWP model uncertainty for improved satellite calibration and validation, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 83-106, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-12-83-2019, 2019.

  6. Carminati, F., B. Candy, W. Bell, and N. Atkinson, 2018: Assessment and assimilation of FY-3 humidity sounders and imager in the UK Met Office global model. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 35 (8), 942–954, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-018-7266-8.
  7. Carminati, F. Jacqueline Goddard, Heather Lawrence, Stuart Newman: Calibration/validation study of GPM GMI, 2017, http://www.gaia-clim.eu/system/files/document/d4.6.pdf, D4.6, pages 22-75

  8. Carminati, F., Nigel Atkinson, Qifeng Lu: Preliminary assessment of FY-3D microwave instruments towards their use in NWP systems, 2019, Forecasting Research Technical Report 634, https://digital.nmla.metoffice.gov.uk/digitalFile_b41cba5a-f328-44d7-9b19-af4cf6e57801/

  9. Colton, M. C. and G. A. Poe, 1999: Intersensor calibration of DMSP SSM/I's: F-8 to F-14, 1987-1997, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 37(1), 418-439.
  10. Jones, W.L., J. Park, S. Soisuvarn, L. Hong, P. Gaiser, and K. St. Germain, "Deep-Space Calibration of WindSat Radiometer", IEEE Trans. GeoSci. Rem. Sens. , vol. 44, no. 3, Mar. 2006. (DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2005.862499)
  11. Kroodsma, R. A., D. S. McKague, and C. S. Ruf, 2017: Vicarious cold calibration for conical scanning microwave imagers. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sen., 55(2), 816-827.

  12. Kroodsma, R., S. Bilanow, and D. McKague, "TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) alignment and along-scan bias corrections," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 35(7), pp. 1457-1470, Jul. 2018.
  13. Okuyama, A. and K. Imaoka, 2015: Intercalibration of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 (AMSR2) brightness temperature, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens., 53(8), 4568-4577.
  14. Sapiano, M., W. Berg, D. McKague, and C. Kummerow, 2013: Towards an intercalibrated fundamental climate data record of the SSM/I sensors, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens., 51, pp. 1492-1503.

  15. Wilheit, T. T., 2013: Comparing calibrations of similar conically scanning window-channel microwave radiometers, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 51(3), pp. 1453-1464.

  16. Yan, B. and F. Weng, 2008: Intercalibration between special sensor microwave imager/sounder and special sensor microwave imager, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 46(4), 984-995.
  17. Yang, J. X., D. S. McKague, and C. S. Ruf, 2016: Boreal, Temperate and Tropical Forests as Vicarious Calibration Sites for Spaceborne Microwave Radiometry, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 54(2), 1035-1051.

  18. Yang S., F. Weng, B. Yan, N. Sun, and M. Goldberg, 2011: Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) intersensor calibration using a simultaneous conical overpass technique, J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 50, 77-95.

Microwave Sounders

Baseline Information on Sensors (Past and Present)

Monitoring Pages


  • Double Differencing
  • Lunar Calibration
  • Simultaneous Nadirl Overpass (SNO)
  • Vicarious calibration

Key Scientific Papers

  1. Burgdorf, M., et al., “The Moon as a photometric calibration standard for microwave sensors”, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 9, 3467-3475, doi:10.5194/amt-9-3467-2016, 2016.
  2. Burgdorf, M.J., Imke Hans, Marc Prange, Theresa Lang, and Stefan A. Buehler: Inter-channel uniformity of a microwave sounder in space, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4005–4014, 2018. doi.org/10.5194/amt-11-4005-2018
  3. Burgdorf, M.J., Buehler, S.A., Hans, I., Prange, M., Meng, Z.: Disk-Integrated Lunar Brightness Temperatures between 89 and 190 GHz, Advances in Astronomy, 2019
  4. Mo, T., & Kigawa, S., “A study of lunar contamination and on-orbit performance of the NOAA 18 Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A”, Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, D20124, doi: 10.1029/2007JD008765, 2007.
  5. Moradi, I., H. Meng, R. Ferraro, S. Bilanow, 2013: Correcting geolocation errors for microwave instruments aboard NOAA satellites. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remove Sensing, 51, 3625 – 3637.
  6. Moradi, I., R. Ferraro, P. Eriksson, and F. Weng, 2015: Inter-calibration and validation of observations from ATMS and SAPHIR microwave sounders, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens ., 53 , 5915–5925.
  7. Moradi, I., Beauchamp, J., and Ferraro, R.: Radiometric correction of observations from microwave humidity sounders, Atmos. Meas. Tech.,11, 6617-6626, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-11-6617-2018, 2018.
  8. Yang, W, H. Meng, R. Ferraro, I. Moradi, and C. Divaraj, 2013: Cross scan asymmetry of AMSU-A window channels: characterization, correction and verification. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remove Sensing, 51, 1514 – 1530.

  9. Yang, Hu, Ninghai Sun, Kent Anderson, Quanhua Liu, Ed Kim, 2018, “Developing vicarious calibration for microwave sounding instruments using lunar radiation”, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 56 (11), 6723-6733

  10. Yang, Hu, Fuzhong Weng, Kent Anderson, 2016, "Estimation of ATMS Antenna Emission from Cold Space Observations”, , IEEE Geoscience and Remote sensing, 10.1109/TGRS.2016.2542526.

  11. Yang, Hu and Xiaolei Zou, X, 2014. Optimal ATMS remapping algorithm for climate research. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 52(11), 7290-7296.

  12. Yang, Hu and Fuzhong Weng, 2016, “On-Orbit ATMS Lunar Contamination Corrections”, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 54 Issue: 4, page(s): 1-7

  13. Yang, H., & Weng, F., “Corrections for On-Orbit ATMS Lunar Contamination”, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 54, 1918-1924, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2015.2490198, 2015.

  14. Yang, John Xun, Hu Yang, 2018, “Radiometry Calibration With High-Resolution Profiles of GPM: Application to ATMS 183-GHz Water Vapor Channels and Comparison Against Reanalysis Profiles”, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 57(2), 829-838

  15. Zhou, Jun, Hu Yang, Kent Anderson, 2019, “SNPP ATMS On-orbit Geolocation Error Evaluation and Correction Algorithm”, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 57(6), 3802-3812.
  16. Zou, C.-Z., and W. Wang, 2011: Inter-satellite calibration of AMSU-A observations for weather and climate applications. J.Geophys. Res., 116, D23113, DOI:10.1029/2011JD016205.

  17. Zou, C.-Z., M. Goldberg, Z. Cheng, N. Grody, J. Sullivan, C. Cao, and D. Tarpley, 2006: Recalibration of microwave sounding unit for climate studies using simultaneous nadir overpasses, J. Geophys. Res, 111, D19114, DOI:10.1029/2005JD006798

  18. Zou, C.-Z., and W. Wang, 2013: MSU/AMSU radiance fundamental climate data record derived from integrated microwave inter-calibration appraoch, Climate Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (C-ATBD), NOAA/NESDIS, available from www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/sds/cdr/CDRs/AMSU%20Brightness%20Temperatures/AlgorithmDescription.pdf

  19. Zou, C.-Z., M. Gao, M.Goldberg, 2009, Error structure and atmospheric temperature trends in observations from the Microwave Sounding Unit, J. Climate, 22, 1661-1681, DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2233.1

  20. Zou, C.-Z., W. Wang, and X. Hao, 2016: AMSU Brightness Temperature –NOAA and AMSU Brightness Temperature –NOAA Gridded, Climate Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (C-ATBD), Revision 2, NOAA/NESDIS, Available from https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/sds/cdr/CDRs/AMSU%20Brightness%20Temperatures/AlgorithmDescription_01B-18_18a.pdf

  21. Zou, C.-Z., M. Goldberg and X. Hao, 2018: New Generation of US Microwave Sounder Achieves High Radiometric Stability Performance for Reliable Climate Change Detection, Science Advances , Vol. 4, No 10, eaau0049, DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aau0049

Topics of Interest/Working Papers

Intercomparisons with Intrusions of the Moon in Deep Space View (Burgdorf, Yang)

In-orbit Microwave Reference Records (Zou)

RTM comparisons (Moradi)

Topic revision: r45 - 27 Jan 2020, RalphFerraro
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